Category: Geology

Predictions at locations where there are no measurements

By Richard Lane

A key feature problem in geological modelling is how to take scattered measurements and use these to make predictions at locations where there are no measurements. The data may be measurements on the surface, or samples taken from drilling, or channel samples taken while excavating. Figure 1 shows the basic problem. Solving this problem is fundamental to how Leapfrog software works, and it underpins the geological and mineralization models that are produced.

Figure 1: A simple scattered data problem. Estimate the value at the red cross from the blue samples.

Figure 1: A simple scattered data problem. Estimate the value at the red cross from the blue samples.

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Viewing multiple images projected on topography

By Sam Bain

Leapfrog allows users to import a range of images into a project so they can be viewed on topography. These include but are not limited to topographic maps, satellite imagery, aerial photos, and geological maps.

Imported images can be viewed projected on topography by adding the topography to the scene and then selecting them from the GIS data drop-down box below the topography object in the shape list (Figure 1).

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Modifying your drillhole data: Splitting lithologies

By Sam Bain

The “Split Lithology” tool (available in Leapfrog Geo, Geothermal, and Hydro) creates a new lithology column by sub-dividing lithologies in an imported column. Often simple logging will result in repeating intervals on each drillhole and these will need to be separated for modelling purposes. As an example, perhaps three unique limestone units at different depths are encountered by exploratory drilling. These might all be logged simply as “Limestone”. In this case the splitting tool could be used to divide the “Limestone” intervals into “Upper”, “Middle”, and “Lower” units. Then each unit can be modelled separately. It is important to note that the original logged intervals are preserved, and the new splits are made in a new interval column. The modeller can correct or re-interpret the logging without altering the original field data.

This blog explains how the “Split Lithology” tool works by walking through a simple example.

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Is expensive video hardware for Leapfrog worth the cost?

By Kirk Spragg

The retail cost of video hardware is not a reliable guide to how well Leapfrog’s 3D visualisation functionality performs on that hardware. The more expensive workstation grade hardware solutions such as NVIDIA’s Quadro range of desktop cards are designed to accelerate operations that Leapfrog does not use. As a result, the 3D performance in Leapfrog is often no better than less expensive gaming and home grade video hardware.

In this post Applications Specialist Kirk Spragg compares five home and gaming grade video cards with a workstation grade Quadro 4000 by benchmarking the cards to determine their relative performance.

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Interpolant function in Leapfrog Geo

By Tim McLennan

Choosing an interpolant function

Leapfrog Geo uses two different base functions to form interpolants. They are the linear interpolant function and the spheroidal interpolant function. This blog covers when to use each base function, how to set the function parameters, and how to convert the parameters for a Leapfrog Mining interpolant across to Leapfrog Geo.

As explained in the Leapfrog Interpolation Basics blog article, the interpolant functions indicate how the function values are expected to vary as the distance between points increases. At small distances the values are expected to be similar and so the function values are small. At large distances the values are expected to vary considerably and so the function values are larger.   The nature of this relationship means that the interpolant function is equivalent to the variogram used in geostatistical modelling.

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The dark art of drillhole desurveying

By Richard Lane

Desurveying computes the geometry of a drillhole in three-dimensional space based on its collar location and the raw dip (or inclination), azimuth (or direction) and depth data of one or more surveys. The resulting geometry is a polyline – a connected series of (X, Y, Z) coordinates used to find the composite locations.

Only under ideal conditions will the path of a drilled hole follow the original dip and azimuth established at the top of the hole. It is more usual that it will deflect away from the original direction as a result of layering in the rock, the variation in the hardness of the layers, and the angle of the drill bit relative to these layers. The drill bit will be able to penetrate the softer layers easier than the harder layers, resulting in a preferential direction of drill bit deviation.

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What is happening with Mining and Geo

By Richard Lane

Leapfrog Geo was introduced in response to a number of requests from users to have a tool that could be integrated more easily in a standard work environment and manage the level of complexity they were encountering in their models. This led to a new interface that helped organise the models in Leapfrog Geo in a more structured way.

We now have received a considerable amount of feedback on how Leapfrog Geo compares to Leapfrog Mining. It has been very informative from our perspective because it has clearly illustrated the very wide variety of uses and tasks that Leapfrog Mining has been used for.

The principal difference between the two products is that Leapfrog Mining is a toolbox, which contains a significant number of powerful tools. Leapfrog Geo is designed to do certain workflows and it does these very efficiently. For users whose principal tasks are these workflows it is the obvious choice, and a significant number of users have indicated their preference by switching to Leapfrog Geo.

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Kickoff for the new Leapfrog blog

By Shaun Maloney

Shaun Maloney CEO ARANZ Geo Limited

Welcome to Leapfrog’s blog

I‘m fortunate to be asked to write the first Leapfrog blog and to set the scene for what we hope will be many thought-provoking blogs to come. No pressure then! Seriously though, we want this blog spot to open up a dialogue between anyone interested in geology and geological modelling in particular. So if that’s you, please get involved, we’re interested in what you have to say!

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